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Posts Tagged ‘travel’

Used Medical Equipment Canada

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Derma Sciences, Inc. – Medical Equipment – Deals and Alliances Profile —Aarkstore Enterprise Market Research Aggregation

Derma Sciences, Inc. – Medical Equipment – Deals and Alliances Profile is an essential source for company data and information. The profile examines the company’s key business structure and operations, history and products, and provides summary analysis of its key revenue lines and strategy as well as highlighting the company’s major recent financial deals.

Derma Sciences, Inc. (Derma Sciences) is a medical device company principally engaged in the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of products that are used for wound and skin care. The company distributes its products to various healthcare agencies and institutions including nursing homes, hospitals, home healthcare agencies, physicians’ offices and retail and closed door pharmacies. It operates through its subsidiaries, which include Sunshine Products, Derma Canada and Derma First Aid Products, Inc. The company distributes its products in the US, Canada and other selected international markets. Derma Sciences is headquartered in New Jersey, the US.

And More inside the report…

Recent Developments

Dec 09, 2009: Derma Sciences’ Bioguard Gauze Dressings May Provide Safeguards Against Influenza Viruses
Nov 16, 2009: Derma Sciences Reports Net Sales Of $12.9 Million In Q3 2009
Aug 17, 2009: Derma Sciences Reports Net Sales Of $11.6 Million In Q2 2009


– Provides key company information for business intelligence needs
– Gives information on the company’s major recent financial deals including mergers & acquisitions, asset transactions, PE/VC deals, equity offerings, debt offerings and partnerships.
– Data is supplemented with details on the company’s history, key executives, business description, locations and subsidiaries as well as a list of products and services and the latest available company statement.

Reasons to buy

– A quick “one-stop-shop” to understand the company.
– Support sales activities by understanding your customers’ businesses.
– Qualify prospective partners and suppliers.
– Understand and respond to your competitors’ business structure, strategy and prospects through.
– Understanding the key deals which have shaped the company.

Company Mentioned
The following companies are the major competitors of Derma Sciences, Inc.:

Johnson & Johnson
Medical Mart Supplies Ltd.
Medical Action Industries, Inc.
Molnlycke Health Care AB
Smith & Nephew Plc
Systagenix Wound Management

For more information, please visit:


Or email us at press@aarkstore.com or call +919272852585

About the Author

Aarkstore Enterprise is a leading provider of business and financial information and solutions worldwide. We specialize in providing online market business information on market research reports, books, magazines, conference at competitive prices, and strive to provide excellent and innovative service to our customers. Our customers include more than 700 leading financial institutions, professional service firms, consulting, law and accounting firms and other corporations throughout the world.

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Used Medical Equipment In Miami

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Beaver Creek – An Introspective Recipe For Euphoria

As presented in www.FirstLightSports.com

As a freelance writer I’m often drawn into an awkward and cyclical quandary. I know the general topic I want to write about, the place, the time, the events, the activities, et al. But the perspective; that’s the tough part to choose. I often take the easy way out, writing a rambling expose or travelogue detailing and colorizing the minutiae of my activities on a particular trip or sojourn. While that fills copy space and generally gives editors a safe piece with which to fatten their publications, it can become mundane if is the sole format presented to the readers. For this piece I am taking an introspective view of my experiences and externalizing them in an attempt to present a different flavor for the readers. I hope that you enjoy it.

For years I’ve been a skier. I know lots of skiers and plenty of non-skiers too. As I began my plans for a trip to Beaver Creek, CO for spring skiing 2006 several of my friends began asking me about it. Where was I going? Why did I choose that location, or time? Why skiing, and not taking a swimsuit/beach trip? Still others; cloistered far from any adventure or athletic venture seemed entirely mystified by my intentions. I began to think about the components of my ski trips which make them so desirable and attractive to me. The word I selected as representative was euphoria. Euphoria. It sounds straightforward, and seemed to me that its parts and mechanisms would be so clear to even the simplest rube. But until now even I had no real idea what elements and ingredients made up my euphoria. So with pen and paper in hand I struck out for Beaver Creek in the fabulous Colorado Rockies to perform a dissection of my own psyche.
What follows is an ingredient-based recipe, which is without order, preparation instructions or relative quantities.

Without a doubt fear plays a role in my personal happiness when taking to the slopes. Perhaps it is the approach-avoidance reflex that tells me that hanging high in the air from a mile-long, 2-inch cable along with hundreds of others just doesn’t seem like it can work. Or maybe it’s the mental calisthenics that jump through my brain when I look down a black-diamond mogul run, knowing full well that the light is beginning to flatten, my wheels have already started to fall off, and I have half an altitude buzz. I’m no psychologist but, damn, I know fear when I smell it. So the question is right in front of me, virtually under the tips of my skis (which are now cantilevered into thin air over the precipice of the run.) Do I go on? Do I look for an easy way down? The answer is, and I suppose will always be, a firm “it depends.” But that’s the elemental reality of fear. It’s not to always take the steep way down, or the easy either, but to have the moment of choice. To stand at a challenge with your heart in your throat weighing your emotions, physical conditioning, and skills. That’s the payoff for fear. Take whichever way down you choose and never look back, the answer is the singular act of moving either way.
Many of my non-skier friends don’t understand my infatuation with skiing. They say that they are afraid of breaking their leg (arm, neck, etc) and could never bring themselves to ski. Every now and then I actually manage to talk one of them into skiing. Fear can strike like a paralysis. First, at the bottom of a bunny run looking up at the slowest moving lift, then again at the top of that same run. Those who conquer their fear are those who are willing to see it and taste it first-hand. I’ve never yet taken a first-time skier, who, after two runs didn’t have a huge smile on their face.
I’m a simple man. Fear is the simplest reaction to the unknown and the unsure. It is one of the emotions that boost our body and mind to produce endorphins and focus our attention to a specific task. A daily supplement of fear strongly blended into my ski day helps to make me feel better and have more fun.
For my daily infusion of fear my photographer John and I calmly caught the “Birds of Prey” lift which services the steepest runs at Beaver Creek. Golden Eagle and Peregrine are both listed by BC as double-black-diamond. Did we have our grooming maps? Was I really looking to ski one of BC’s famous groomed corduroy runs anyway? Naah.. We don’t need no stinking grooming maps! We had warmed up for the day and were feeling pretty perky, and seriously… we had fresh wheels, sharp edges, and good snow. How tough could it be? At the top of Golden Eagle I attempted to take some measure of that exact evaluation. It looked pretty daunting, a quarter mile of serious vertical, and a sea of monster moguls chock-a-block from side to side. I’ll admit that my heart was pinging a bit in anticipation as I surveyed the run from the top. Two choices lay before me; one way straight down, another an exit to an adjacent blue run. And on that day at the top of the moguls, I looked down beyond the tips of my skis, and I chose…

I asked my wife Amy, a nurse, recently about adrenaline and how it worked. She replied by giving me a very medically appropriate (but meaningless to me) definition:
Adrenaline n : a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress; stimulates autonomic nerve action
Ok… I asked again, making sure this time to let her know that I wanted to know for myself what this stuff is and why it’s so important. It turns out that adrenaline is the turbo booster for our bodies. It’s generated when we need it to fight or to run and gives our bodies and minds power and focus. Fun stuff. It turns out that we can get this stuff flowing on demand if the circumstances are right.
Medical lingo and physiology aside, adrenaline is a rush, literally. Beaver Creek has plenty of adrenaline producing runs which allow even a schlub writer from the Midwest to live large and fast on the mountain. The turbo effect that’s generated provides the strength and concentration to really enjoy skiing. While fear may play a part in kicking me into high gear, when I add some speed to my skiing I begin to approach a feeling of flight. I rarely, if ever, leave the ground while on skis! That’s not the point. The point is that skiing provides a mechanism to get a serious physiological buzz. So dear reader, I say to you: You gotta get some of this stuff!

Where’s the best place on Beaver Creek’s mountain to get your adrenaline cranked up? Well, again that’s a serious answer of “it depends.” For myself, I can’t sustain an entire day of knee pounding bumps, or uber-steep slopes. I choose for myself a mix starting with some early morning warm-up blues and greens. One intrepid para-sail pilot was getting jazzed by flying over BC on one of my ski days there. After limbering up and finding my balance for the day I like to advance to some darker blue and black runs. By the end of day I look for something that’s free of ice and hard-pack, with the length and width to do some cruising. Spring skiing can be a real mix of dramatically changing conditions. I found myself in some sunny slush near the base, some seriously gnarly chunk and ice crud in remote places, and deep in fresh powder for a couple days too. Again, I often choose to ski the mountain, not the grooming report.
Word to the wise about high altitude skiing. Your physical mechanisms are doing a ton of work, especially with your adrenaline turbo kicking in during the day. Keep yourself hydrated and fed. Drink as much water as you can, whenever you can, and eat high carb and high protein foods to fuel your machine. Save the alcohol for après ski time, and save yourself a few doses of adrenaline for the evening. Adrenaline, it’s not just for skiing.

Try as I might, I just can’t strap on the Ipod and crank Metallica or Slayer and ski all day. With much of my youth in the rear-view mirror I like to take to the slopes with the same balance that I look for elsewhere in my life. Sure it’s fun to do some mogul mashing and top-to-bottom speed runs. But maintaining an equilibrium of activates has become very important to me. The Roman philosopher Terence said “Moderation in all things.” Well, since I’m Greek and have never held much use for the Romans I need to make a small change to Terence’s message. I’d prefer to state simply “All things”, to Hell with moderation. Going to Beaver Creek and looking for moderation is like going to Miami Beach and looking for a little water. BC has tons of variety, and it has an almost embarrassing overabundance of everything that a skier would want.

I’ve been told that BC is a good shopping venue too, what the military would call a target-rich environment. But since this is my introspective (and I am a fully accredited non-shopper) I can’t provide any accurate detail. Feel free to shop and browse through the many stores and mercantile outlets in the BC village. Buy, don’t buy, enjoy. Just don’t expect me to keep you company.
Amenities are important but ease of use is high on my list of positive features that I look for. The invisibility of an apparently good administrative organization while personally having freedom on the slopes to ride, cut, or mash is amazingly easy at BC. In the village restaurants, bars, equipment retailers, etc (the list goes on) are all handy for all my eating, drinking, equipment, and other requirements. And on the mountain? Hey, sometimes you need to nosh a bite or stop for a bio-break; it’s nice that they put plenty of places there too.

After a day of skiing there are a couple great places right at the bottom of the Centennial lift to have a drink and a snack. If you’re lucky the sun will be shining and you can sit outside and watch the last of the skiers descend the mountain as you enjoy your drink and reminisce about the day’s activities. My photographer, John, likes to enjoy his “apple juice” which is really CC & 7, for myself my traditional après ski drink is hot-chocolate with peppermint schnapps. I assure you, that you will be happy when a lovely waitress brings you either of those.

I sometimes wax poetic when I get out west skiing. The amazing mountains and the deep sapphire skies paint a dramatic background for my downhill activities. There is a special place in my brain that gets switched into high definition mode when I’m in the Rockies. If you’ve never been there, it’s hard to explain. I could try to tell you about the snow and the mountains and the vistas and all the rest. But certainly I would fail to convey the effect. Even photographs, though they may be accurate and colorful, fall short. My advice: get yourself out to see the mountains, get into them, and ski them. Then before you knock off for the evening, exhausted from the day’s exertions, get your coat on and step outside into the Dark Colorado night. If you can get yourself to Vail mountain, take the gondola up to the Eagles Nest in the dark to the top, it’s a free ride and very cool. Take a deep breath and a long look up through the crystalline sky to the heavens and the stars. It’s can be an amazingly calming and poignant moment.
I thought to follow in the great historical avenues of other Greeks like Homer, Aesop, and Euripides by writing an epic poem celebrating the amazing cornucopia of nature. This was a short-lived concept which died on the vine as I immediately realized that the time and detail required would be way too immense. So this Greek freelancer has chosen an unanticipated but more simplistic format, the Haiku; one for daytime and one for nighttime. Hopefully both Homer and Takahama will forgive me.
Sapphire blue the sky
White snow has given us wings
Golden sun smiles down
Stars in the darkness
The Mountain slumbers in peace
Silence casts a calm

I meet the most interesting people in the mountains when I go skiing. There are people from all walks of life from all parts of the globe. I’m a fairly gregarious guy and I enjoy talking with new people I meet, pretty much everywhere I go. It’s part of who I am, and it sometimes drives my wife and friends crazy. But I talk to virtually everyone who rides the lifts and gondolas with me, and I never tire of hearing their stories. John and I rode the lift with a 72 year old Argentinean woman who was skiing with her 5 granddaughters. She has been skiing virtually her whole life and didn’t show any signs of stopping. I met doctors, lawyers, bankers, ski bums, families with kids, cooks, and computer programmers of many ethnic and language backgrounds. Without exception they were friendly, warm, and most of all happy. Of course they were happy, I know that I was certainly very happy. We were all skiing in Colorado what’s not to be happy about?

Fun is the measure of quantity and the spice flavoring all the other ingredients listed here. Use it liberally, aggressively, loudly, and with verve.
Nothing but fun… On a side trip to Vail at night I took a stint at night bike-skiing. If you’re looking for a bit of nighttime fun that’s ski related I can highly recommend this somewhat exotic activity.

So, that’s my recipe for a skier’s euphoria, I hope you enjoy it. I know that each of you will add your own ingredients and mix them in your own unique proportions. Take my advice and get yourself out skiing, or if you’re already a skier; keep it up and don’t stop.

Read more at www.FirstLightSports.com

About the Author

George Karioris is the Senior Feature Writer for www.FirstLightSports.com George has had a desire to write since his school days where he occasionally contributed to his college newspaper. He has written for some online publications producing mostly travelogues for visits to various ski venues. George wants to bring the excitement and beauty of his sporting travels to the web through his feature articles. When on the snowy slopes he loves steep cruising ski runs where he can let his skis run. An avid road biker, George pedals in many organized rides plus near daily solo head-clearing rides. When he’s not biking, skiing, or writing for First Light Sports, George works his day job writing software for a large financial institution. E-Mail: george@FirstLightSports.com

Local 10 South Florida look at Medical Equipment Company Doctors Toystore

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Used Medical Equipment Houston

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What is Lasik Surgery?

Lasik surgery is a procedure that permanently altered the shape of the cornea, the clear covering of the front of the eye, with a Excimer laser. Houston has been at the forefront of implementing new technologies in the treatment of nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. Thus, the most advanced lasik Houston Laser system today as Wavelight Allegretto Excimer Laser System, which was approved by the FDA.

The city is home to the only eye care center that is exclusively with the LASIK treatments. Since its know-how is concentrated mainly on laser vision correction, this area has not only the latest diagnostic and surgical devices, but the doctors to perform Lasik surgery are experts in their field.

Lasik Houston provides a cost effective alternative to LASIK surgery, because they have their own equipment. In addition, because an FDA Investigational Site, they were initially approved for Wavelight Allegretto Excimer Laser System they now use successfully today.

To understand fully why the WaveLight Allegretto Excimer Laser System is so successful, it is important to explain like a typical laser procedure was performed before the Wavelight. The cornea is the part of the eye that is light, which creates an image to focus on the retina. Refraction is the process by which bent the light and focus is. So if an object is blurred, this is known as refractive errors. People who wear glasses or contact lenses bear, are suffering from some form of can ametropia and thus laser surgery as indicated refractive surgery must be known.

The surgery itself shapes the cornea to allow for more acute vision. One of the first laser procedure was performed PRK ever known. It is designed to reshape the cornea with a laser. In this method, the top layer of the cornea is scraped off, while in LASIK, a flap is cut and the cornea is reshaped to produce optimum sharpness.

The progress in technology in general and for the doctors, especially in LASIK not only saves the actual operation time to a minimum, but offers International EyeCare to the patient the opportunity to view new WaveLight Allegretto Excimer Laser System by experienced surgeons, whose only job experience is a vision to improve effective than ever before.

The process has hardly any discomfort during and after the operation. It is not carried out under general anesthesia. The ophthalmologist is numbing drops into the Eye brought before the treatment. The procedure takes about 30 minutes for the entire procedure.

Any pain following surgery will be paid out of the experience with an over-the-counter painkillers. Most of the time both eyes on the same day. After surgery, patients must not drive, so the transport of another person required.

After treatment, it is recommended that the patient is asleep or resting. The patient must be sure to not rub or hurt the eye, a corneal flap was carefully put back into its original position. Contact your eye doctor if you develop any excessive pain or complications, which were discussed with you about your surgery.

About the Author

At the International EyeCare Laser Center, our doctors practice LASIK only – we are specialists. Dr. Charles Moore is instrumental in the design and development of LASIK diagnostic and surgical equipment. For more information visit our site: http://www.texaslasik.com/

Gulf Oil Spill Workers Health Problems Report Title: Gulf Oil Spill Workers Health Report Problems Category: Health News Created: 03/06/2010 14:10:00 Last Editorial Review: 04/06/2010

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Used Medical Equipment Minneapolis

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Three Tips on Finding the Right Minneapolis Plastic Surgeon

When you talk about Minneapolis, it’s good form to recognize its twin city St. Paul, on the other side of the Missouri River.  St. Paul is the capitol of Minnesota after all; and even though St. Paul has always been in the shadow of its neighbor across the river, the area has come to be known as the Twin Cities.  With 3.2 million residents in the area, Minneapolis/St. Paul is the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the country.


In a metro area of that size you are going to find quality medical services and certainly quality plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures if you know where to look.  While we don’t have a specific set of instructions for you, here are some suggestions on how to go about finding the plastic surgeon that will work for you.


1. The most famous name in medicine for Minnesota and perhaps for the country is the Mayo Clinic.  Mayo has one of the finest medical schools in the country, opened in 1972.  Located in Rochester, Mayo Clinic and its medical school are eighty miles from Minnesota, but many of its graduates gravitate to the Twin Cities area to open practices. 


The medical school has a two year graduate program in plastic surgery, described on their web site:  “Approved by the American Board of Plastic Surgery, this unique program offers one-on-one training in the outpatient setting, hospital and operating room.”  One of your options might be seeking out a Mayo trained cosmetic plastic surgeon.


2. The University of Minnesota’s medical school has a plastic surgery program that covers the gamut of both reconstructive and cosmetic plastic surgery.  The school is active in research and uses state of the art equipment to teach the fine points of breast augmentation, facial lifts and the other common procedures.  One of the University’s medical schools is in Minneapolis and many of its graduates practice there.  Until 1972, Mayo’s staff doctors taught at the school.  The state’s medical school also graduates its own plastic surgeons.


3. Minneapolis itself has a population of about 370,000, which makes it less than 15% of the metropolitan area.  There are a number of affluent suburbs where you’ll find well established plastic surgery outpatient clinics.  Today, many people find that liposuction or such procedures as a tuck or facial lift work well as outpatient procedures.  Many of the clinics have been in operation for twenty years or more.   You won’t find a lot of clinics offering the array of day spa treatments, which depending on your perspective may (or may not) be a refreshing fact.


Find information about all types of plastic surgeon procedures including breast implants, breast augmentation face lifts, and liposuction. A Board Certified Plastic Surgeon Resource.com is the place to locate a Plastic Surgeon in Minneapolis.

About the Author

Mary Hart is a freelance writer specializing in Cosmetic & Beauty topics.

Liberty Oxygen And Medical Equipment – Minneapolis, MN

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Home Medical Equipment Concord Ca

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Cpap Travel

cpap travel
I can see, apnea doc tomorrow?

I am a little tired, but two docs think their psychosomatic-but want that I suddenly a study In sleep panic about getting a CPAP Travel Camping comfort in public (Camp Travel hostels) tommorrows appt w / doc sleep I was suddenly horrified support No words of consolation wisdom appctd I had no symptoms til some idiot doc she said Thot I have had it and since the symptoms (there were two MOS now) they also Thot I had diabetes and was wrong, note: I have tapes of sleep normal light snore, I'm awake in the morning (one doc says that's not apnea) I am 50 pounds overweight male I love all the support here apprciated to camp for days'm single and dating how sexy is a CPAP! and it just fear for the lives of people with a CPAP please dont kick take

I have Sleep Apena and use a CPAP. Nothing taken offense to. I understand your fears. I had them as well. I can tell you that the Sleep study is not a big deal. A technician will be more electrodes on a band around your abdomon, a sensor in your mouth and nose, and an oxygen monitor on your finger. This monitor sleep breathing, oxygen levels, stages of sleep, heart rate and different muscle movements while. Neither is it painful or uncomfortable. The room will be very happy to be a mistake. There is really no reason to stress over it. If this study finds that you do have sleep apnea a second study will be necessary to machine determine the correct settings for a CPAP. Since you are male and overweight you are at an increased risk for SA. They are not very correct about the CPAP sexy. But any woman worth your time should understand how important it is for your health and life. SA carries a risk for stroke or death. To learn more on sleep apnea click on the links below. Terry

Travel Tips – SleepStyle 600 Series CPAP Machine

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Used Medical Equipment Madison Wi

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Used Medical Equipment Seattle Wa

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Anti Poverty


Anti Poverty in USA


                          Even the wealthiest nation in the world like the United States does not escape the problem of poverty. This paper takes a critical look at poverty and anti-poverty policies in the United States. In this paper, I have argued that poverty is caused by several factors. This paper also discusses the liberal and conservative perspectives for reducing poverty in America. The conservatives have focused on individual factors such as wide wage gaps, breakdown of family, racial factors and other reasons while the liberals have focused on the structural transformation of the American economy to explain the persistence of poverty.  Since 1960, both the federal and state governments have been responding with policies that address the problem with mixed results. In this paper, I have analyzed the policies and have also recommended the possible ways to deal with this intractable nature of poverty.

                   According to Sen (1981), ‘the poor are those people whose consumption standards fall short of the norms, or whose income lie below that line’. The word “poverty” suggests destitution, an inability to provide a family with nutritious food, clothing, and reasonable shelter. Over thirty-six million Americans live below the official U.S. poverty line (Blank, 2007). This means a family of three earns less than less than $ 16,000 or a single individual earns $10,300 per annum (Blank, 2007, p. 17). Millions more struggle each month to pay for basic necessities, or run out of savings when they lose jobs or face health emergencies. Job cuts, high rates of unemployment, foreclosures and high food and gas prices continue to stimulate policy formulation designed to improve the condition of the poor.

                     Poverty is integrally associated with misery and suffering. The lost potential of children in poor households and the lower productivity and earnings of poor adults are all intertwined with poor health, increased crime and broken neighborhoods. Childhood poverty typically leads to poor health care and high crime neighborhoods. Persistent childhood poverty is estimated to cost the United States $500 billion each year, or about 4% of the nation’s gross domestic product (Blank, 2007, p.1).

                    One in eight Americans lives in poverty and poverty in the United States is far higher than in many developed nations (Rebecca Blank, 2007, p1). Inequality has reached record high. The richest 1 percent of Americans in 2005 held the largest share of the nation’s income (19%) since 1929 (Rebecca Blank, 2007, p. 2). At the same time the poorest 20% of Americans held only 3.4% of the nation’s income (Rebecca Blank, 2007, p.2).

                    Colorado in spite of being surrounded by the beautiful Rocky Mountains and experiencing a cool, mountain climate has many homeless people. Scholars have identified that, a growing number of single parent households, a shortage of jobs for lower wage workers and a low rate of high school graduation have contributed to the growth of poverty in Colorado. The Colorado poverty rate has increased from 9.2% in 2000-2001 to 10.6% in 2005-2006 while the poverty rate of United States has increased from 11.5% in 2000-2001 to 12.5 % in 2005-2006 (Center on Law and Policy, 2006, p.1).  Most of these ill-fated poor people suffer from mental and health problems. 

Causes of Poverty

                        Policy analysts are trying to explore numerous perceived direct and indirect causes of poverty in the United States to formulate effective policies to alleviate poverty. The work of scholars such as Corley (2003), Sowell ( 2004), Iceland (2006), Jencks (1992), James Tobin (1993) and others have shown that the intractable nature of poverty is a result of not any one factor but of the interaction of a variety of causes. The breakdown of family and other social causes as well as the structural changes in the economy, have all contributed to society’s failure to eradicate poverty inspite of ardent efforts by policy analysts.

                   Individual Explanation of poverty mainly stresses the attitudinal or motivational factors and human capital factors. Thus lack of motivation among indigents causes poverty. Generous welfare programs sometimes affect the mind-set of recipients and they prefer to stay at home and enjoy the benefits rather than work outside. Murray (1984) argues that individuals prefer to remain on welfare because of insufficient motivation to come out from public welfare programs.

                  Formulation and proliferation of policies to alleviate poverty has been a major concern of the United States Government since 1960. Educational attainment is necessary to get a high paying job. Elementary school education, as well as lack of adequate skills and motivation among indigents to come out of the situation is the major causes of poverty. People well equipped with technical skills get high salaried jobs while people who are school drop outs get low pay on an hourly basis. During the 1960s when the then- President of United States Lyndon Johnson began to implement the United States ‘war on poverty’, he placed great emphasis on education (Jencks, 1992). The Lyndon Johnson administration even invested in programs like Head Start and occupational training to upgrade the skills of the poor and also to prevent future generations from working in low-paying jobs. Scholars like Sowell (2004) and Corley (2003) have emphasized individual level factors as the central causes of poverty. They argue that a person’s compensation is based on his or her educational qualification and marketable skills. Sowell (2004) argues that the lack of appropriate skills has affected the ability of many indigents to climb out of poverty. He also argues that there has been an increase in the poverty rate of unskilled Americans, who have lost jobs to Asian immigrants. Corley (2003) also supports the above argument and regards ‘lack of educational attainment’ as one of the entrenched sources of poverty. Low quality education from poorly funded inner-city schools results in few marketable skills which leads to low-wage jobs and other miseries associated with it such as less ability to pay for housing, food, clothing, medical care, bad neighborhoods, funding problems for schools, and increased risk of serious illness (Corley, 2003). 

                          Many scholars have argued that structural changes are the primary reason for the persistence of poverty in the United States. Structuralists emphasize issues such as joblessness, discrimination in education, institutional racism and economic transformations in explaining the causes of poverty. Scholars argue that the inability to provide decent paying jobs for some American families and the ineffectiveness of American public policy to reduce poverty are basically the result of structural failures and processes. Poverty is rooted in the structure of American society. Rank, 2004 supports the above view and argues that lack of human capital tends to place individuals in a vulnerable state when events and crises occur. The incidence of these events like loss of a job, family break-up and ill-health often result in poverty. These ill-fated people unable to handle these situations often end up in paying more. Scholars also argue that the acquisition of human capital is strongly influenced by the impact of social class on this process (Rank, 2004). Apart from poor family, race and gender also play a role in the acquisition of human capital (Mark Robert Rank, 2004).

                          Globalization, the expansion of credit markets leading to greater indebtness and foreclosures leading to recession in 2008 all point to the growth of poverty.  Iceland (2006) primarily focused on economic factors and has argued that poverty is also the product of deindustrialization. As the U.S. shifts from a manufacturing, industrial society to a service-oriented, high-tech society, many of the blue-collar jobs that required little education but paid well are disappearing or are being outsourced. Rural areas, such as Appalachia, suffer losses of mining jobs, and cities such as Detroit lose many manufacturing jobs to automation or overseas factories. Some people are unable to follow the jobs or commute to work are left in neighborhoods without employment or tax-basis to support needed social functions, such as schools, public transportation, police departments, and so forth. Others simply cannot find jobs because of the shift towards a service-based economy; in economic terms these people are structurally unemployed due to the changing skills needed. Tobin (1993) supports the above viewpoint and emphasizes on the disappearance of jobs in the 1900s as the main reason for the country’s failure to eradicate poverty. Recent employment data shows that the US housing slump and the crisis in America’s credit markets are threatening to increase poverty levels. Isidore (2008) mentions that the job losses  are widespread, with the battered construction sector losing 51,000 jobs and manufacturing employment falling by 48,000 in the year 2008 . Retail employment dropped by 12,000 jobs, and business and professional service employers cut staff by 35,000. The unemployment rate jumped to 6.1% in September from 4.9 % in January (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008).

                         Kelso (1994), argues that over the last forty years, there has been a major shift of American firms first to the west and then to the south. Part of this shift was due to the rise of the Cold War and the decision of the government to enlarge U.S. military power (kelso, 1994). He argues that as America elected to invest more in defense and in the aerospace industry, cities like Seattle and Los Angeles on the West Coast began to boom while the growth of a high technology and information based technology led to the growing affluence of California and the San Francisco Bay area. Later with the expansion of inter-state highway system and growth of jobs, markets were created in the south.

                         Iceland (2006) also argues that although the service sector of the economy has generated millions of jobs, but again polarized earning distribution based on educational attainment separates better paying jobs from poorer paying jobs. He supports a Marxian analysis of class conflict and exploitation and emphasizes on business owners favor hiring inexpensive labor to maximize profit. This also accounts for the inflow of cheap labor to the United States from Mexico and other countries. Greater access to credit has put cars, computers, credit cards, and even homes within reach for many more of the working poor. But this remaking of the marketplace for low-income consumers has a dark side. Roubini notes that, “Having access to credit should be helping low-income individuals, but instead of becoming an opportunity for upward social and economic mobility, it becomes a debt trap for many trying to move up (Grow and Epstein, 2007).

                          Inspite of public assistance and wide initiatives taken by both Federal and State governments, poverty still exists. Meticulous analysis of the situation and effective formulation of policies is needed to solve the problem of poverty in the United States. Scholars like Rank (2004), Blank (2007) and others have shown that the United States Government spends fewer funds addressed towards poverty than any other industrialized country. Thus a major structural failure is found at the political level (Rank, 2004). Most European countries provide a wide range of insurance programs, unemployment assistance, and wide universal health coverage along with considerable support for child care (Rank, 2004). Such social programs are far more generous than those in the United States (Rank, 2004). While, low-income families in the United States work more than those in other countries, they are still not able to make up for lower governmental income support relative to their European counterparts (Blank, 2007, 141-142).

                          The gross disparities among impoverished people in the United States along racial lines have led many scholars to speculate that institutional racism is responsible for much of the poverty in the United States. Racial discrimination in employment and   education contribute to the growth of poverty. Some scholars like Massey and Denton (1993) interpret the statistics in terms of institutional racism while others like Kelso (1994) interpret the statistics as evidence of deficiencies and suffering of blacks.   In spite of efforts to remove racism, slavery and Jim Crow segregation, Massey and Denton (1993) argue that racial segregation still exists and that the fundamental cause of poverty among African Americans is segregation. They argue that segregation has created and perpetuated a black underclass by limiting educational and employment opportunities. Massey and Denton (1993) have shown that Blacks were shown homes in racially mixed areas or areas adjacent to predominantly black areas.

                           Also, changing patterns of family formation are more pronounced among racial and ethnic groups. Family patterns are also one of the causes of poverty in the United States. There is a wide gender gap in wages. In 2004 the median income of FTYR male workers was $40,798, compared to $31,223 for FTYR female workers (DeNavas-Walt et al, 2005) Pearce (1978) argues that ‘poverty is rapidly becoming a female problem’. Iceland (2006) supports this statement and showed that in 2000, the female poverty rate (12.5%) was 26% higher than the male poverty rate (9.9%) (Iceland, 2006). According to Iceland, women have fewer economic resources than men, and they are more likely to be the head of single- parent families. It also leads to the greater likehood that single, divorced or widowed women will be poorer than their male counterparts because of less social security income or other retirement income in addition to higher female life expectancies. Women’s lower wages, lower retirement benefits and the increasing number of single mothers have led some scholars to talk about the “Feminization of Poverty.”

Federal policies

                       After the Second World War, by 1963, creation of jobs by President John F. Kennedy’s tax policies could not remove the problem of poverty. Poverty was still recognized as a major national problem. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s War on Poverty led to a host of programs that included Medicare, Medicaid, Food Stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, and others. These entitlements eventually consumed half the federal budget and could not alleviate poverty. The U.S. economy had been devastated by the recession of 1979-83 when the United Statess manufacturing infrastructure was shattered by the Federal Reserve’s skyrocketing interest rates causing unemployment to shoot up by sixty-five percent in four years (Cook, 2007). By the end of the 1980s the economy was in another recession, leading to the election of Bill Clinton who in 1992 replaced the incumbent George H.W. Bush. The investment boom of the 1990s was fueled by foreign capital lured in by the Treasury’s strong dollar policies. Jobs were created as the dot.com bubble expanded, trade barriers fell, and utility trading giants like Enron took off. NAFTA was enacted to promote free trade, welfare-to-work brought low-income women into the job market, and the Earned Income Tax Credit was extended. The party ended when the stock market crashed in December 2000 and millions of people lost their retirement savings and other investments. Recession was returning even as George W. Bush was being declared president by the U.S. Supreme Court in December 2000. The economic crisis deepened after the September 11, 2001 attacks when $1.4 trillion in wealth vanished during the worst five days of the stock market since the Great Depression (Cook, 2007). Cook (2007) argues that today, poverty is becoming a national catastrophe. Cook (2007) argues that from 2002 through 2006 the economy was floated by the housing bubble, with many lower income people getting into homes of their own through the proliferation of sub prime mortgages. With the financial woes in late 2008, many American citizens are left with inflated home prices and no way to pay for them.

                      The 1960’s policy initiatives and declaration of ‘unconditional war on poverty’ by the then president Lyndon Johnson marked a discrete change in the federal government’s willingness to intervene for the purpose of improving the economic situation of poor Americans. Despite the billions of dollars spent on programs like CETA (Comprehensive Employment Training Act), The Manpower Development and Training Act, Head Start, and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the government efforts to deal with the origins of poverty have met with minimal success. During this period, implementation of the Social Security old-age program insured virtually all retired workers against the risk of outliving their savings. The Social Security Act of 1935 sought to protect the incomes of those who did not work because of age or a poor economy by establishing a federal framework for unemployment insurance, old-age benefits, and assistance to women. In early 1964, the two most pressing priorities of President Johnson’s antipoverty agenda involved passing a massive tax cut designed to stimulate the economy and organizing a task force to shape the ‘War on Poverty’. The Economic opportunity Act (EOA) signed by Johnson created a long list of programs designed to help individuals develop marketable skills, political power, and civic aptitude. But this anti-poverty legislation oversaw other programs like Community Action Program, Job Corps, VISTA, Head Start (1965), Legal Services (1965) which were not included in its framework. While extensive programs like the Food Stamp Program, Medicare for elderly, Medicaid applied to qualified poor residents, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act for poor students overshadowed the EOA. The Higher Education Act eased the financial burdens of millions of college students. The Civil Rights Act opened up new spaces in the American marketplace, while the Voting Rights Act did the same for the political marketplace. The Fair Housing Act established an important base of law to combat housing discrimination. As a result the EOA slowly lost importance. Again, Murray (1984) argues that welfare benefits had soared so high so as to make living in poverty a meaningful option for the poor. Even Burton (1992) has supported the above viewpoint and argues that the programs have done more to cause poverty than to alleviate it.

                          When Nixon assumed power, he tried to deal with poverty in a more direct way than emphasizing social programs. . Although President Nixon expressed dislike for much of the War on Poverty, his administration responded to public pressure by maintaining most programs and by expanding the welfare state through the liberalization of the Food Stamp program, the indexing of Social Security to inflation, and the passage of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program for disabled Americans (Rank, 2004). The Nixon administration also endorsed a “New Federalism” in which the federal government shifted more authority over social welfare enterprises to state and local governments. His plan to implement the ‘Family Assistance Plan’ (FAP) consisted of various income provisions, work provisions, and training provisions for those below the poverty line (Rank, 2004). It failed to pass the Senate much like the ‘Programs for Better Jobs and Income’ initiated by President Carter in later years.                                       Welfare reform continued as a focus of federal policy debates even after the legislative defeat of FAP. Even though a cash ‘Negative income Tax’ (NIT) for all poor persons never passed, the Food Stamp program provided a national benefit in food coupons that varied by family size, regardless of state of residence or living arrangements or marital status. The number of AFDC recipients increased from about 6 million to 11 million and the number of food stamp recipients, from about 1 million to 19 million during the Nixon administration (Danziger, 1999, p. 8). Danziger (1999) also argues that as higher cash and in-kind benefits became available to a larger percentage of poor people, the work disincentives and high budgetary costs of welfare programs were increasingly challenged. The public and policy makers came to view increased welfare recipients as evidence that the programs were subsidizing dependency and encouraging idleness.

                        Despite the failure to enact a guaranteed income program, both the number of recipients and the amount of money spent on welfare programs increased substantially during the 1970’s (Rank, 2004). Rank (2004) has given an overview of Reagan’s policies and noted that Reagan emphasized individual action unhampered by government interference, rejected the social engineering of the 1960’s and also supported federalism, that is, returning power to the states rather than centralizing them within the federal government. Reagan tried to address the problem and set the tone for welfare reform that occurred in 1990 during his successor’s administration. The Reagan administration thought eligibility for welfare benefits had increased so much, that many persons who were not “truly needy” were receiving benefits. The Reagan Administration opposed simultaneous receipt of wages and welfare benefits. Rather, it proposed that welfare become a safety net, providing cash assistance only for those unable to secure jobs.

                    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), enacted in 1975, provides families of the working poor with a refundable income tax credit (i.e., the family receives a payment from the Internal Revenue Service if the credit due exceeds the income tax owed). Thus the EITC raises the effective wage of low-income families, is available to both one- and two-parent families, and does not require them to apply for welfare. The maximum EITC for a poor family was $400 in 1975 and rose to $550 by 1986 (Danziger, 1999, p. 14). The 1986 Tax Reform Act increased the EITC so that by 1990 a low-income working parent received a maximum credit of $953 (Danziger, 1999, p. 14). The number of families receiving credits increased from between 5 and 7.5 million families a year between 1975 and 1986 to more than 11 million by 1988 (Danziger, 1999, p. 14). Danziger, 1999 argues that as the expanded EITC supplements low earnings, it became easier for policy makers to emphasize welfare reform policies that could place recipients into any job, rather than training them for “good jobs.” Thus he argues that if a nonworking recipient took a low-wage job, a substantial EITC could make work pay as much as a higher-wage job would have paid in the absence of an EITC.

                         The Family Support Act (FSA) of 1988 expanded the scope of the AFDC program for two-parent families, instituted transitional child care and Medicaid for recipients leaving welfare for work, and added funds and required states to establish programs to move greater numbers of welfare recipients into employment. When the welfare rolls jumped in the late-1980s and early-1990s, from about 11 to about 14 million recipients, dissatisfaction with welfare again increased ( Danziger, 1999).    

                        President Nixon identified the two main economic problems, inflation and unemployment, that justify the need for economic recovery to the American worker. Reagan has emphasized despair caused by unemployment combined with high inflation. Reagan’s rhetorical construction of welfare recipients and the welfare system was aimed at reducing anxiety among Americans caused by increasing taxes, inflation and the continuous fear of losing jobs. To end this victimization, Reagan proposed a plan for economic recovery (Rank, 2004). Apart from cutting government spending, specifically spending on social programs, Reagan also proposed to have State governments assume control of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and the food stamps program in exchange for the Federal Government control of Medicaid. Although this proposal failed to reach the Congressional floor, his presentation of the proposal to exchange AFDC and food stamp program with Medicaid made poverty a local concern (Mark Robert Rank, 2004).  

                       Liberals and conservatives still disagreed on other goals of welfare-to-work programs. Liberals thought welfare reform should expand opportunities for welfare mothers to receive training and work experiences that would help them raise their families’ living standards by working more and at higher wages. Conservatives emphasized work requirements, obligations welfare mothers owed in return for government support whether or not their families’ incomes increased (Mead, 1992). 

                       In later years President Clinton’s approach also emphasized empowerment as a way of helping welfare recipients and to accumulate more savings without being penalized and expanding the earned income tax credit (Blank, 2007). By the mid-1990s, the focus of policy concern shifted from fighting poverty to reducing welfare dependence. President Clinton’s signing of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (the PRWORA) ended the entitlement to cash assistance and dramatically changed the nature of the social safety net. The Act created the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Program (TANF). TANF began on July 1, 1997, provides cash assistance to indigent American families with dependent children through the United States Department of Health and Human Services (The Center for American Progress Task Force on Poverty, 2007).  Danziger, 1999 argues that each state can now decide which families to assist, subject only to a requirement that they receive “fair and equitable treatment.”  In instituting a block grant program, the PRWORA granted states the ability to design their own systems, as long as states met a set of basic federal requirements. The bill’s emphasis on ending welfare as an entitlement program, places a lifetime limit of five years on benefits paid by federal funds, and also aims to encourage two-parent families and discourages out-of-wedlock births. In granting states wider latitude for designing their own programs, some states have decided to place additional requirements on recipients. Although the law placed a time limit for benefits supported by federal funds of no more than 2 consecutive years and no more than 5 years over a lifetime, some states have enacted more stringent limits. All states, however, have allowed exceptions with the intent of not punishing children because their parents have gone over the time limit. Federal requirements have ensured some measure of uniformity across states, but the block grant approach has led individual states to distribute federal money in different ways. Certain states more actively encourage education, others use the money to help fund private enterprises helping job seekers. The PRWORA offers no opportunity to work in exchange for welfare benefits when a recipient reaches her lifetime limit of 60 months of federally-supported cash assistance. But the reform has certain limits. States may not use federal block grant funds to provide more than a cumulative lifetime total of 60 months of cash assistance to any welfare recipient, no matter how willing she might be to work for her benefits, and they have the option to set shorter time limits. States can grant exceptions to the lifetime limit and continue to use federal funds for up to 20 percent of the caseload. The extent of work expectations has also been increased. Single-parent recipients with no children under age one will be expected to work at least 30 hours per week by FY 2002 in order to maintain eligibility for cash assistance (Danziger, 1999, p 20). States can require participation in work or work-related activities regardless of the age of the youngest child. Thus PRWORA emerged from research that sought both to reduce poverty and welfare dependency (Danziger, 1999).  In the 1990s, following Clinton’s call to “end welfare as we know it,” policy makers escalated their demands for recipients to work and reduced government obligations toward and funds to serve them (Danziger, 1999).

                     When Bush took office in 2001, the U.S. was experiencing a national surplus, unemployment and poverty had been on the decline for years, and the economy was booming. Now, almost six years later, poverty is on the rise, healthcare coverage is on the decline, and the country is faced with the largest national deficit in history. Lower middle class families are slowly slipping below the poverty line and the poorest are becoming even more destitute. Most of these families are headed by women.

                      President Bush has extended the TANF. There has been a general economic stimulus policy initiative during the Bush administration but nothing targeting low income Americans has been enacted. President Bush signed the economic stimulus package (H.R. 5140) into law with the hope that it will provide a much-needed boost to the lagging economy. The package includes tax rebates for individuals, tax breaks for businesses, and a temporary increase of the Federal Housing Administration loans from $417,000 to $729,750 (White House report, 2008). More than 130 million people are expected to get tax rebates ranging from $300 to $1,200 per household for individuals earning $75,000 or less and couples earning up to $150,000 (White House report, 2008). While the stimulus package will provide much needed financial help to millions of people, it fails to target those most in need as it will not include an extension of unemployment benefits, energy assistance, food stamp benefits, or fiscal relief to states for Medicaid.                       

                  From the above analysis, the question arises whether poor are responsible for their own condition. The above analysis implies that recipients become dependent and lethargic due to vast welfare measures. Scholars such as Murray (1984) and Kilty and Segal (2006) have emphasized on individual factors. They argue that welfare measures and lack of spirit and motivation among indigents contribute poverty. Danziger, 1999 argues that during the Nixon era increased welfare measures encouraged idleness. Kilty and Segal, 2006 also argues that poor people can come out into a state of self-sufficiency from dependency by learning proper work attitude and skills. Kilty and Segal, 2006 argue the importance of welfare reform and a ‘tough love’ approach would ultimately help the poor by making them conscious of their condition and forcing them to take their own responsibility. Bill Clinton’s emphasis on ‘personal responsibility’ and measures to ‘end welfare as we know it’ in 1992 all supports the above argument.

                     Due to the implementation of TANF, the numbers of people on welfare have decreased. As a result more funds are accumulated. In 1996 the number of ADFC recipients was 12,644,076 while in 2001, the number of TANF recipients was 5,91, 811 and the poverty rate also reduced from 13.7 to 11.3 ( Kilty and Segal, 2006) and while in 2008 it is 1,628,422  ( US Dept of Health and Human Services). The share of single mothers on welfare (based on administrative caseload counts divided by population numbers) rose from 38 percent in 1969 to 48 percent in 1980, but had fallen to 30 percent by 1998 ( Kilty and Segal, 2006). These caseload changes are widespread, with every state in the country experiencing substantial caseload decline. This decline has been widely hailed by politicians as an indication that policies designed to reduce dependence on public assistance and move less-skilled adults into the labor market have been extremely effective ( Blank, 2007). But however Blank argues that declines in welfare do not affect the poverty rate. The poverty rate in 2007 was 12.5 percent, increasing slightly from its level of 12.3 percent in 2006. The poverty rate increased for four straight years from 2000 to 2004. In 2007, the poverty rate was 1.2 percentage points higher than it was in 2000 (Blank, 2007).     

States welfare initiatives

                      Most states took a significant decision about reform, and this decision was sensible in light of state goals and experience. A few states did not seriously make reform policy. New York was so deeply divided that it took no serious decisions about AFDC (Mead, 2002). Alabama and Missouri were pushed into reform by federal action and appeared to have little welfare policy of their own (Mead, 2002). In several other Southern states (Florida, North Carolina), policymaking appeared to be casual and personalized, with the governor or legislators offering reform plans with, apparently, little inquiry or evidence behind them( Mead, 2002) . Texas policymaking was incoherent as the state claimed to pursue work first but based its policy on an experimental program and focused far more on education and training (Mead, 2002). States have always emphasized on reform. But sometimes lower contribution towards these plans result in total failure of the program. Mead (2002) argues that in Florida and Georgia, however, officialdom was dragged into reform but showed little commitment to it. In Arizona and California, the agency or major localities had been heavily committed to a skills-oriented approach to welfare and resisted the shift toward work first. In Texas, welfare reform was a lower priority to administrators than rebuilding non-welfare employment programs and other initiatives. In Colorado and New Jersey, local agencies had a history of defiance toward the state government, and this prevented them from fully endorsing reforms decided in the capital. Mead (2002) argues that inspite of establishment of Employment Service (ES), a federally-funded job placement agency, and training programs under the federal Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), poverty rate did not improve. After national welfare work programs were first enacted in 1967, the ES engaged in welfare practices. But because the ES’s routine stressed serving job seekers who came to it voluntarily, it generally performed poorly with welfare clients (Mead, 2002). These jobseekers came to it on a mandatory basis, as a condition of receiving aid. To succeed with them, the agency had to enforce work but also support employment with special services. The ES often found both these roles uncongenial (Mead, 2002). The ES was denoted to the role of contractor to welfare and later in 1988 the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) merged the ES, JTPA, and other non-welfare work programs. But this merging also created confusion. The problems included lack of clear procedures to refer clients to WIA, to serve them there, or to report results back to welfare. The states that lacked coordination and inadequate management information systems (MIS) were Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Washington, West Virginia, Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee.      

                         Colorado’s public reform has been associated with decline in poverty rate. By the close of 2000, Colorado’s unemployment rate dropped to 2.6 percent, personal income showed steady gains, state welfare cases declined dramatically, and State legislators wrestled with an estimated $833 million revenue surplus (Colorado Fiscal Policy Institute, 2001). But inspite of all the above facts poverty still persists as expenses like child care, out-of-pocket medical expenses and geo-graphic differences in housing costs increased. The increases occurred even after adjusting for income support such as tax relief, food stamps and school lunch programs, housing subsidies and energy assistance. A report published in 2001 by the Colorado Fiscal Policy Institute determined that a single parent with two small children living in Denver County would need to earn an annual salary of approximately $39,924 in order to meet their basic needs such as housing, food, health care, childcare and transportation without public or private assistance. Even child poverty rate is high in Colorado. About 180,000 children, 15.7 percent of the state total was living in poverty in Colorado in 2006, a 73 percent increase since 2000 (Frosch, 2008). The state of Colorado purchases childcare for income eligible families through the Colorado Child Care Assistance Program (CCCAP). The state allows individual counties to set the purchase price of childcare and make payments to providers from a combination of parental fees and federal, state and county funds. However, the Colorado Office of Resource and Referral Agencies (CORRA) found in a 2001 study that the average county payment fell below 75 percent of market value (Colorado Fiscal Policy Institute, 2001, pp 9). As a result counties forced providers to subsidize the cost of service to low-income families, which many were simply unwilling to do when limited slots could be filled with families that could afford to pay full rates. Other providers that chose not to simply refuse service to CCCAP families saved money by limiting the number of children on CCCAP that they would accept, cutting programs, or reducing workers’ wages. All of these actions limited availability and sacrificed quality of care to low-income children. Poverty still exists in Colorado despite initiatives to alleviate poverty as too many working families lives with incomes below the poverty line and more families earn wages simply too low to afford their basic needs. The Colorado government started the Common Good Caucus in 2007 to develop a 2009 agenda, emphasizing on K-12 education and determined to bring technologies out of the laboratory and into the marketplace by investing $4.5 million dollars in bioscience industry, supporting the Clean Energy fund to reduce high family utility costs , creating the Colorado Solar Incentive Program with $2 million to provide rebates for photovoltaic and solar thermal systems to help Coloradans join the new energy economy and cut their utility bills ( State Rep. Kerr Andy, 2008). Poor people cannot pay the full cost of heating and lighting their homes. Governments and social service agencies have long assisted low-income ratepayers in paying their bills through such programs as the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), charitable fuel funds, levelized billing, discounts, home weatherization, energy efficiency, energy usage education and debt management. If all Americans live in weatherized and energy efficient homes and have the income to pay their full share of utility bills, all other ratepayers would save nearly $6 billion in poverty costs, including fuel assistance, lifeline and other rate assistance, weatherization and efficiency costs, the costs of late payments and service disconnections (Oppenheim and MacGregor, 2007).      



              From the above analysis it is clear that poverty remains pervasive due to the economic system, social stratification and welfare measures. According to Iceland (2003) on one hand, economic growth and technological changes contribute to increase in wages and overall standard of living. Economic growth accompanied by rising education levels improves the condition of people. On the other hand, the market economy often exerts a contrary effect on poverty levels (Iceland, 2003). To maximize profits, businesses usually seek to pay low wage to workers which increase inequality and poverty. Again policy may increase or decrease the harmful effects of inequality. Combining the factors emphasized by both liberals and conservatives, poverty is multifaceted. I believe that a strong national effort would alleviate poverty. Employment opportunities for all so that that worker and their families can avoid poverty, meet basic needs and save for the future. Increasing hourly wages would definitely improve the condition of these people. A smaller share of unemployed low-wage workers, receive unemployment insurance benefits. I believe that states (with federal help) should reform “monetary eligibility” rules that screen out low-wage workers, broaden eligibility for part-time workers and workers who have lost employment as a result of compelling family circumstances. Workers should use this period of unemployment and the money received from the Unemployment Insurance System and upgrade their skills and qualifications. Thus adults should have opportunities throughout their lives to connect to work, get more education, and live in a good neighborhood and move up in the workforce.

                         Child care assistance to low-income families and emphasis on K 12 education would definitely reduce the rate of poverty in the United States.                          Low-income youth hardly attend college than their higher income peers. Pell Grants play a crucial role for lower-income students. Simplification of the Pell grant application process, and encouragement of institutions to do more to raise student completion rates would definitely improve the condition. Expansion of Pell Grants would make higher education accessible to residents of each state. The states at the same time should also develop strategies to make postsecondary education affordable for all residents. Expansion of the Saver’s Credit would encourage saving for education, homeownership, and retirement. As a result all Americans would have assets that would allow them to weather periods of volatility and to have the resources that may be essential for upward economic mobility. Apart from Saver’s credit, expansion of Earned Income Tax Credit would raise incomes and helps families build assets. Thus there should be opportunity for all so that children grow up in conditions that maximize their opportunities for success.











Blank Rebecca (2007); Poverty to Prosperity; Center for American task force on Poverty;

www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/04/pdf/poverty_report.pdf – Similar pages

Colorado Statewide Homeless Count (2007), School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado, denver.www.dola.state.co.us/cdh/Publications/Winter_2007_Statewide_PIT.pdf – Similar pages

Cook Richard (2007), Poverty in America

www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=5905 – 61k – Cached – Similar pages

Corley Mary Ann (2003); Poverty, Racism and Literacy; ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education

Danziger Sheldon (1999), Welfare Reform Policy from Nixon to Clinton, Institute for  for Social Research, University of Michigan.

De Navas-Walt, et al., “Income, Poverty and Health Insurance in the United States: 2005.

Diana Pearce Diana Pearce (1978) “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, and Welfare,” Urban and Social Change Review.

Iceland John (2006); Poverty in America; University of California Press

Isidore Chris (2008); the Trillion-Dollar Mortgage Bomb,

money.cnn.com/2008/04/21/news/economy/fannie_freddie/?postversion=2008042103 – 66k –

James Tobin (1993); Poverty in Relation to macroeconomic Trends, Cycles and Policies; Cowles foundation discussion paper.


About the Author

Garima Dasgupta
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Mold : Frequently Asked Questions

Why does mold form and what makes it grow?

Mold likes dark and humid spaces and most often develops as a result of standing water and high levels of moisture. Whether the water damage comes from a leaking pipe or a stormy night it often leads to mildew, which can be very smelly and unattractive. Most importantly, mold grows fast and can replicate at staggering rates. Standing water can start producing dangerous mold in as little as 48 hours.

What should I do if I discover mold?

If you discover mold, the best thing to do is call a mold remediation Maryland professional. The professional will be able to locate the source of the mold problem and using proper equipment and tools remediate the mold. If the mold problem is very minor and you decide to clean it up on your own, make sure to wear goggles, gloves and some form of breathing protection. Seal off the mold infected area from the rest of the property and immediately dispose of all mold infected materials. Finally clean, clean and clean again and check back again to make sure that mold has not returned.

What are some of the misconceptions about mold?

One misconception about mold is that it can be removed with high heat, dry air and sunlight. Although these solutions may make sense considering they are the opposites of what actually causes mold, they are not powerful enough to completely get rid of the mold. The proper sure-free way to clean up mold is to use strong detergents. Mold remediation should be done by professionals using proper equipment and safety measures.

Does bleach kill mold?

Contrary to what you have probably heard, bleach cannot kill mold. It can be used to remove mold, but it will only work successfully on hard surfaces. Bleach not only fails to kill mold, but can actually enable it to grow faster as it is primarily composed of water.

How can I keep my property mold free?

There are several steps you can take to ensure that your property stays mold free. First, you must make sure there are no water problems. Open windows and doors for good air flow and, if needed, use a fan in kitchens, bathrooms and laundry rooms. Attics and crawl spaces should be properly insulated and ventilated. Another key step is to vacuum your property regularly to remove mold spores. Finally, check windows for condensation and wipe away any water droplets you find.

How are people exposed to mold?

People are usually exposed to mold by breathing in spores or other tiny fragments of it. Exposure can also occur through skin contact or by swallowing it.

Can mold make me sick? What makes a person more susceptible to becoming sick from mold?

Yes, mold can make you sick and will pose health risks especially to people who are at high risk for sickness and allergic reactions. This includes infants and children, the elderly, people with respiratory infections and asthma and people with weakened immune systems due to other medical conditions. Other factors include a genetic predisposition to allergies, people working in an occupation that consistently exposes them to mold, people living in a house with a wet basement or high humidity and people living in newer houses.

Why are people who live in a newer home at high risk for mold exposure and sickness?

Newer homes are built extra air-tight to promote energy efficiency, which means that indoor moisture can easily become trapped inside and prevent proper ventilation. Damp areas are particularly vulnerable to mold growth such as kitchens, basements and bathrooms.

What health problems can be traced to mold?

Mold can cause the following health problems:

  • Allergies and asthma attacks
  • Infections
  • Irritations of mucous membranes in eyes and respiratory system
  • Decreased attention, disorientation and dizziness
  • Suppression of immune system
  • Higher susceptibility to cancer
  • Headaches, tremors and nausea
  • Infertility


What should I do if I think I am sick from mold exposure?

Go to your primary care physician who will determine whether you need to see a specialist for the problem. The specialists your PCP may refer you to include allergists or infectious disease physicians.  

What are the treatments for people who are sick due to mold?

Treatment may include the use of antihistamines, decongestants and/or nasal sprays. Asthma attacks due to mold may be treated with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators (seek the advice of a physician).

How can mold problems be prevented?

One key step for prevention of mold is immediate clean-up after water damage. Water damage restoration Maryland specialists can help prevent mold growth. Paying close attention to damp areas such as basements or places of pipe leaks is also extremely important. The use of a dehumidifier is a good idea in any part of your property that smells damp or musty. Humidity should be kept below 50 percent.

Here are some additional ways to prevent mold growth:

  • Use the ventilation fan for an additional 30 minutes following a shower or bath.
  • Clean bathroom and basement walls regularly with a bleach solution.
  • Clean gutters often to promote ground water drainage away from the property.
  • Sleep with your windows closed at night so that damp air does not enter.
  • Wear a mask when raking leaves or mowing the grass.


What other places have a high risk for mold exposure?

There are several places outside your home or place of business that can foster mold growth. These places include antique shops, greenhouses, saunas, farms, mills, construction areas and flower shops to name a few.

Where should I check for mold?

When dealing with mold, there are several places on a property that are extra susceptible to mold growth. Here are some key places to check when you suspect that mold is present.

  • Bathrooms and kitchens
  • Carpeting
  • Pipes, faucets and ductwork
  • Basements
  • Attics
  • Window sills
  • Garage
  • Walls


Are there any uses for mold?

Although everything so far has focused on the negative side of mold, there are actually uses for it.  Here are some ways that mold is important to the environment:

  • The mold penicillium is used to make the antibiotic penicillin. Other types of mold are used to make cholesterol lowering medications.
  • Mold is used to make foods such as cheese, sausages and soy sauce.
  • Some compounds and enzymes are formed by mold such as citric acid, gluconic acid and riboflavin.

About the Author

ACCORD Restoration specializes in clean-up, repair, restoration and rebuilding after fires, floods, storms or natural disasters. We offer reliable, 24/7/365 emergency services carried out with expert craftsmanship.

To learn more visit http://www.accordrestoration.com/

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Why do countries like Australia to borrow money to other countries if we use it?

how they are used for medical research and or / Buy You medical devices under piles of other things to help us new – how to help with the drought, hurricanes, damage etc … I understand what the factor tommybear 'Says more money in exchange for the interest on a loan and all that, but there are countries that do not pay them back, the country is poorer. I think Australia and NZ had been for loans to Iraq or Iran a few years back – (Could be off to another country?) written them off completely – again our country needs the means – and not anywhere else ..

o ask the dreaded question, my dear. Actually, I guess they (the Gov't) image that other countries it need more bad than it does. For example, just because you could use a cash bonus, it does not mean you should not donate to a charitable organization that it desperately needs. Catch My Drift? Just because I have 5 dollars in my pocket and I am very thirsty, does not mean it is right, a poor child who has not had to ignore a drink all day. But somewhere, somehow, I agree with you, still. USA'a President Wilson had it right when your own country first floor and get it right thought, but I think then the world would be perfect, there would be no world at all. Have a good day!

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